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Synthetic Methods and Use of Isopropylamine

Isopropylamine is an organic substance with a chemical formula of C3H9N. Its aqueous solution is alkaline, and its mixture with air is highly explosive. It can react with oxidants. Its vapor is heavier than air and can spread to a considerable distance in a lower place, and it will cause backflash in case of an open flame. It is corrosive and is used in synthetic pesticides, medicines, dye intermediates, rubber vulcanization accelerators, emulsifiers, detergents, abstergents, depilatory agents, hard water treatment agents, surfactants and textile auxiliaries and so on.


Ⅰ. Uses of isopropylamine


1. Isopropylamine is used in synthetic pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dye intermediates, rubber vulcanization accelerators, emulsifiers, detergents, abstergents, depilatory agents, hard water treatment agents, surfactants and textile additives and so on. It can also be applied in the production of pesticides and herbicides such as atrazine, ametryn, and dipropetryn, etc., and used in medicine for diisopropylamine dichloroacetate, indanol hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, pindolol and other drugs. And it is used as solvent, hard water treatment agent, detergent and so on.


2. Isopropylamine is used as a solvent, organic synthesis intermediate, emulsifier, surfactant, and rubber vulcanization accelerator.


Ⅱ. Synthesis methods of isopropylamine


There are two main methods for industrial production of isopropylamine.


1. Acetone hydrogenation ammoniation method


The raw material acetone is sent to a reactor with copper-nickel-white clay as a catalyst, and hydrogen and ammonia are introduced to react under normal pressure and at a temperature of 150 to 220℃. The reaction product is purified by distillation to obtain isopropylamine, and diisopropylamine is also formed. The conversion rate of acetone is 98%, and the total yield of mono- and diisopropylamine is more than 90%. Raw material consumption quota includes acetone of 1390kg/t, liquid ammonia of 450kg/t.


2. Isopropanol hydrogenation amination method


Isopropanol, ammonia and hydrogen are reacted with a porous nickel-aluminum catalyst activated by barium hydroxide at 195°C and 1.72MPa to generate monoisopropylamine and diisopropylamine. The total conversion rate of the reaction can reach 86%, and the product yield based on isopropanol can reach 96%, which contains 37% monoisopropylamine, 33% diisopropylamine, 12% isopropanol, and 18% water.


Refining method: Isopropylamine is prepared by reacting isopropyl bromide with an alcohol solution of ammonia, or reacting acetone with ammonia and hydrogen under the catalysis of nickel-copper-white clay. Therefore, it may contain impurities such as acetone, bromoisopropane, isopropanol, and various other propylamines. It can be refined by distillation. To obtain high-purity isopropylamine, anhydrous barium oxide can be added and left for a few days, and then distilled in the presence of sodium. The fraction at 31.4°C at 131.961Pa is collected and re-distilled.


Ⅲ. Storage of isopropylamine


This product is a first-class flammable liquid and is packed in iron drums. The container should be sealed, stored in a cool and ventilated place with no smoking. It should be isolated from oxidants during storage. In case of fire, use carbon dioxide, sand, chemical dry powder or water spray to extinguish the fire.

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