The definition of amine in organic chemistry is "a derivative of ammonia." It comprises nitrogen atoms with lone pairs of electrons and is classed as an organic nitrogen compound. The hydrogen atom is replaced with an alkyl or aryl group in amines. Proteins, nucleic acids, numerous hormones, antibiotics, coco amines and alkaloids are all examples of amines, and they are vitally essential for their physiological and biological actions.
Amines are classed as either aliphatic or aromatic amines based on their chemical structure. Aryl and alkyl groups are classified into three sub-categories, based on the number of carbon atoms connected to the nitrogen and the number of hydrogen atoms replaced, in addition to amines. The following are the details.
1) Amphetamines (Class 1 amines)
When one of the three hydrogen atoms in ammonia is replaced by an alkyl or aromatic group, primary amines are formed. Methylamine and amino acids are examples of primary alkyl amines, while aniline is an example of a primary aromatic amine.
2) Amines with a dual function
Secondary amines have two organic substituents connected to the nitrogen with a hydrogen, either alkyl or aryl or both. Dimethylamines and aromatic amines like diphenylamine are examples.
3) Tertiary amines
Tertiary amines are nitrogen molecules that have three organic substituents. Trimethylamine and EDTA are examples of tertiary amines.
Tertiary amines have a positive charge and include four organic substituents in their nitrogen. Cyclic amines, which are based on the attachment of a substituent connected to the nitrogen, are an interesting fourth subclass of amines. Secondary and tertiary amines, on the other hand, are cyclic amines. Piperidine's six-membered ring and aziridine's three-membered ring are two examples.